Innovative Approach to Speed up Antibody Production
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside, have developed a groundbreaking vaccine that harnesses preexisting immunity to influenza to accelerate the production of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. This novel approach, led by Rong Hai, an associate professor of microbiology and plant pathology, aims to significantly reduce the time our bodies take to develop a protective antibody response after COVID-19 vaccination.
Typically, it takes weeks for the human body to generate protective antibodies following COVID-19 vaccination. However, the new vaccine design leverages the immune system’s existing response to influenza. “Any delay in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 means there is some time when people are left poorly protected against the virus,” explains Hai. “Our vaccine is designed to get people those protective antibody responses faster, so they are not vulnerable to the coronavirus. This is better protection for everyone.”
The Science Behind the Vaccine
The innovative vaccine combines a fusion protein, merging the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The virus uses this spike protein to attach to cell receptors, initiating infection. Antibodies against RBD can block this process, preventing cell infection.
Harrison Dulin, the first author of the study, outlines the challenge: “For more B cells to become activated and start producing antibodies against RBD, two steps are needed. First, the B cell needs to encounter the RBD protein, and second, the B cell needs to be activated by a helper T cell.” The new design expedites this process by utilizing helper T cells generated in response to a flu infection, thereby accelerating the production of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.
Potential Impact and Future Directions
The vaccine’s design holds significant promise, especially for low-resource countries. “Given the simplicity of our new design, it would not require these countries to acquire any additional complicated or expensive equipment,” Hai remarks. This approach could be vital in responding to future pandemics, as Emma H. Wilson, a coauthor and professor of biomedical sciences, suggests: “It could be especially useful if we ever have to deal with SARS-CoV-3 or some other novel pandemic virus.”
Despite the encouraging results in mice, further research and clinical trials are necessary to determine the vaccine’s safety and efficacy in humans. The team acknowledges the variability in preexisting immunity to influenza among individuals and the need to test the vaccine across diverse immune backgrounds.
The research, utilizing the University’s new biosafety level 3 lab, demonstrates the vaccine’s potential in neutralizing live SARS-CoV-2. This breakthrough could mark a significant step forward in our ability to respond more swiftly and effectively to emerging viral pathogens.